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Mine Exploration Forum

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Author Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
carnkie

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Joined: 07/09/2007
Location: camborne, cornwall

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Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
Posted: 11/06/2008 22:15:36
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Buckhill wrote:

).

Re winzes/raises Confused - I'm probably missing something here but what purpose were they for if not connecting to other levels?


Could be for exploration? I have a slight problem with the adit being the lowest level. This is obviously dependant on the type of mining. In the south west it normally wouldn't have been. I agree about the shafts. They certainly were not all vertical, caused a few problems re. the man engine.
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Manicminer

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Joined: 29/04/2007
Location: North Wales

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Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
Posted: 11/06/2008 22:19:15
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Buckhill wrote:



Re winzes/raises Confused - I'm probably missing something here but what purpose were they for if not connecting to other levels?


In a metal mine in the old days a winze would have been sunk to prove a vein at depth. A raise would have been done to prove a vein above a level. The level itself would have been driven to prove the vein in the first instance.
If the vein could not be found/pinched out/values were poor/mining company went bust then it would be abandoned. If it was promising then it would have been developed and the ground mined by driving a level and stoping out the valuable ground. These days a diamond drill hole would prove the ground at a lower cost.

A shaft off the vertical in a metal mine would be called a decline, although a raise off the vertical would still be a raise.

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Gold is where you find it
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Manicminer

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Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
Posted: 11/06/2008 22:32:33
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carnkie wrote:

I have a slight problem with the adit being the lowest level. This is obviously dependant on the type of mining.


I would say it's the lowest level out to surface and not the lowest level in the mine.

Down South you would have a shaft going down from surface and a drainage adit from a convenient valley. The shaft would continue down below this point for a couple of thousand feet and have levels off.

Here in N. Wales the adits are driven in at the bottom of the valley and mining carried out between them and the surface up to a thousand feet above. Once this 'easy' ground was taken out then the more expensive sinking a winze and the required hoisting and pumping would take place.

An adit here is nearer to the bottom of the mine, whilst an adit there would be nearer to the top of the mine.

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Gold is where you find it
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carnkie

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Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
Posted: 11/06/2008 23:11:42
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Okay , understand all that, thanks.

"Gold is where you find it"

I think think the story behind Keane Wonder mine is, to say the least, quite interesting.
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Graigfawr

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Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
Posted: 06/11/2009 00:12:55
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Just found this thread which is rather old but thought the following might be of interest:

The term 'Horseway' was used in the south Wales coalfield from the very late C18 to the mid C19 for slants driven from outcrop of seams, down to the shaft bottoms or other convenient points in the workings, usually at or near full-dip, to walk horses in, which was much simpler than lowering them down shafts before cages were introduced. An implication of their existence is that underground stables may have been largely introduced only after horseways went out of use as it would have been straightforward to walk the horses in and out of the workings each day, and save taking fodder inwards.
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rikj

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Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
Posted: 06/11/2009 19:29:45
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Buckhill wrote:


Re winzes/raises Confused - I'm probably missing something here but what purpose were they for if not connecting to other levels?


Another, probably much less common, use of a raise was to find a borehole being sunk from the surface.

If ventialtion became poor at the forehead of a level being driven, a borehole was sunk from the surface to meet the level.

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sanitas per evolo
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royfellows

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Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
Posted: 06/11/2009 19:42:15
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I have just looked at this thread, basically, its all regional.

Mr Manicminer has most of it sussed, however a decline is driven downwards, and incline is upwards. Then again, it’s regional, West Country.

In Welsh slate mines, incline is incline whatever.

Here is a good one as an example.

Sometimes levels are driven in the footwall of a hading lode. So in Cornwall its a "footwall drive", but in Wales its a "side tie".

Like I said, regional. Like "sump" up north is "winze" in Wales or West Country. Or even "weasel".

More complicated than the wiring of my lamps, me thinks!


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''the stopes soared beyond the range of our caplamps' - David Bick...... How times change
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derrickman

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Mining Terminology - Horse Levels
Posted: 06/11/2009 20:55:06
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coal mining, metal mining and slate mining terms differ considerably.

There are further variations related to bulk, low value products like potash, salt and ironstone where a pillar-and-stall system would usually be employed. 'Panel', for example, is a term quite unknown in narrow-vein mining, but sometimes used in coal mining.

There are regional variations over and above that.

another use for raises is as orepasses, a larger or more modern mine may well have a limited number of centralised crushing and hoisting stations receiving ore from raises from the levels above.

my understanding has always been that broadly speaking, a winze is sunk from or between levels, a raise is driven upwards from or between levels ( but a raise driven using a raise-borer is usually called a raise, regardles of the fact that it is initially driven by a pilot hole from above, and then reamed from the bottom up )

Geevor called their sub-surface shaft an 'incline', which can be seen on the nameboard unveiled by the Queen, and they should know. Boulby Potash appear to use the same term for their current sub-level inclined shaft project.


I've also understood the term 'shaft' to refer to a vertical or near-vertical access used primarily for pumping, raising production or other main access; hence for example the sub-main at Pendarves was always referred to as a 'shaft' and not a 'winze' because it was fitted for hoisting and pumping.


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