Mine exploration, photographs and mining history for mine explorers, industrial archaeologists, researchers and historians Mine explorer and mining history videos on YouTube Connect with other mine explorers on Facebook
Tip: do not include 'mine' or 'quarry', search by name e.g. 'cwmorthin', use 'Sounds like search' if unsure of spelling

Advanced Search
'Sounds like search'
Quick a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Tip: narrow down your search by typing more than one word and selecting 'Search for all words' or 'Exact search'

Search for any word
Search for all words
Exact search
Tip: narrow down your search by typing more than one word and selecting 'Search for all words' or 'Exact search'

Search for any word
Search for all words
Exact search

Mining Dictionary of Terms

Mining has given rise to potentially hundreds of terms for processes, techniques and equipment, many of these terms vary by region or were specific to the type of mine.

In an attempt to create a good mining dictionary / lexicon any registered AditNow member can add new terms.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

A


Abutment In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.

Click here to discuss Abutment in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:05:29 by Clunk)
Acid mine water Mine water that contains free sulphuric acid, mainly due to the weathering of iron pyrites.

Click here to discuss Acid mine water in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:06:47 by Clunk)
Active workings Any place in a mine where miners are normally required to work or travel and which are ventilated and inspected regularly.

Click here to discuss Active workings in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:07:32 by Clunk)
Adit A nearly horizontal passage from the surface by which a mine is entered and dewatered.

Click here to discuss Adit in the forum (last modified 05/11/2013 12:09:28 by RJV)
Advance Mining in the same direction, or order of sequence; first mining as distinguished from retreat.

Click here to discuss Advance in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:08:55 by Clunk)
Adventurer Old name for a shareholder, as working the mine was considered an adventure.

Click here to discuss Adventurer in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 13:59:21 by carnkie)
Agglomeration A family of processes which can be used to concentrate valuable minerals (including coal) based on their adhesive properties.

Click here to discuss Agglomeration in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:09:37 by Clunk)
Air leg Telescopic cylindrical prop expanded by compressed air, used to support a rock drill and control drilling rate.

Click here to discuss Air leg in the forum (last modified 29/01/2008 16:21:28 by Gwyn)
Air split The division of a current of air into two or more parts.

Click here to discuss Air split in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:10:24 by Clunk)
Airshaft Also known as a "Smokehole" a shaft driven to the surface purely for ventilation purposes

Click here to discuss Airshaft in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 13:19:10 by Captain Scarlet)
Airway Any passage through which air is carried. Also known as an air course.

Click here to discuss Airway in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:10:59 by Clunk)
Alluvial tin Tin found in the alluvium of a river valley. It was washed by the action of water from the surface outcrop of tin lodes into the nearest river valley over millenia.

Click here to discuss Alluvial tin in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:03:00 by carnkie)
Alluvium Debris including rock, sand and clay deposited in a river valley

Click here to discuss Alluvium in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:01:07 by carnkie)
Anemometer Instrument for measuring air velocity.

Click here to discuss Anemometer in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:11:31 by Clunk)
Angle Bob A simple lever-based device using which the direction of a reciprocal motion (of pump rods, flat rods) could be changed (for example from horizontal to vertical)

Click here to discuss Angle Bob in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:50:23 by Captain Scarlet)
Angle of dip The angle at which strata or mineral deposits are inclined to the horizontal plane.

Click here to discuss Angle of dip in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:11:59 by Clunk)
Angle of draw In coal mine subsidence, this angle is assumed to bisect the angle between the vertical and the angle of repose of the material and is 20° for flat seams. For dipping seams, the angle of break increases, being 35.8° from the vertical for a 40° dip. The main break occurs over the seam at an angle from the vertical equal to half the dip.

Click here to discuss Angle of draw in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:12:34 by Clunk)
Angle of repose The maximum angle from horizontal at which a given material will rest on a given surface without sliding or rolling.

Click here to discuss Angle of repose in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:13:09 by Clunk)
Anker Small barrel.

Click here to discuss Anker in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 11:54:36 by carnkie)
Anthracite coal Of the four types of coal, anthracite is the hardest and contains the highest heat value. It is almost pure carbon and is used mainly for home heating and cooking. In some developing countries, it is also used for industrial purposes.

Click here to discuss Anthracite coal in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:13:48 by Clunk)
Anticline An upward fold or arch of rock strata

Click here to discuss Anticline in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:14:17 by Clunk)
Anvil A hard stone on which large stones are broken.

Click here to discuss Anvil in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 11:55:32 by carnkie)
Aquifer A water-bearing bed of porous rock, often sandstone.

Click here to discuss Aquifer in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:14:47 by Clunk)
Arching Fracture processes around a mine opening, leading to stabilization by an arching effect.

Click here to discuss Arching in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:15:21 by Clunk)
Arsenic Flu As the name suggests a flu that is elongated (see also "Labyrinth") as a means of obtaining Arsenic soot from calcined ore that can be sold as a byproduct.

Click here to discuss Arsenic Flu in the forum (last modified 08/03/2008 16:29:18 by JR)
Arsenopyrite An important arsenic ore. Also kmo as mispickel or mundip - chemical composition iron- arsenic sulphide.

Click here to discuss Arsenopyrite in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:05:00 by carnkie)
Ashlar Square-cut smoothly dressed building stone.

Click here to discuss Ashlar in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:37:23 by Peter Burgess)
Assay hatch Exploration pit dug to search for lode outcrop. If the crop was found the hatch became an access shaft.

Click here to discuss Assay hatch in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:06:37 by carnkie)
Assay House The mine laboratory, where samples or ore were analysed for their mineral content

Click here to discuss Assay House in the forum (last modified 03/01/2008 17:45:50 by Mr Mike)
Assaying Method used to determine the metal content of the ore.

Click here to discuss Assaying in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:07:35 by carnkie)
Attal Refuse parts of workings.

Click here to discuss Attal in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 11:56:08 by carnkie)
Auger A rotary drill that uses a screw device to penetrate, break, and then transport the drilled material (coal).

Click here to discuss Auger in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:16:05 by Clunk)
Azimuth A surveying term that references the angle measured clockwise from any meridian (the established line of reference). The bearing is used to designate direction. The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and the line.



Click here to discuss Azimuth in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:16:58 by Clunk)
Back to Top

B


Back The roof or upper part in any underground mining cavity.

Click here to discuss Back in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:17:58 by Clunk)
Backfilling When old mine working (worked out stopes and chambers) are re-filled with waste rock, to save it being removed from the mine. This can also be used as roof supporting, false floors, and walling to keep back underground tips stc...

Click here to discuss Backfilling in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 16:29:41 by LAP)
Bailiff The man responsible for the day-to-day running of a stannary district. He was answerable to The Steward of the stannary.

Click here to discuss Bailiff in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:09:25 by carnkie)
Bait Miners lunch.

Click here to discuss Bait in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:39:01 by Mr Mike)
Bal A word used since medieval times for a group of tin bounds. Thought to be related to the Cornish word pal, or a shovel, hence digging. By the 18th century referred to a mine.

Click here to discuss Bal in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:13:29 by carnkie)
Bal maid Term used for female mine surface workers who were engaged in copper and tin dressing.

Click here to discuss Bal maid in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:14:28 by carnkie)
Balance Bob A large counterweighted lever attached to the shaft pump rods and used to offset their weight and thus reduce the work of a pumping engine to lifting water alone. A surface balance bob would be mounted adjacent to the shaft on a pair of plinths or on a masonry support at ground level (balance bob mounting), the attached counterweight - a large box filled with scrap iron or rocks - working in an adjacent stone-lined pit. Other balance bobs would be installed in chambers cut into the rock adjacent to the shaft wall as needed to counterbalance the weight of the pump rods, especially on a deep shaft..

Click here to discuss Balance Bob in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:41:32 by Captain Scarlet)
Ball Mill Cylindrical rotating mill in which ore was crushed into finer material by the use of metal balls in water.

Click here to discuss Ball Mill in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:10:54 by carnkie)
Banded veins Veins made up of layers of different materials parallel to the walls.

Click here to discuss Banded veins in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 11:57:57 by carnkie)
Banjo Leicestershire coal miners name for the large shovel used to load coal from the coal face onto the conveyor.

Click here to discuss Banjo in the forum (last modified 01/04/2008 12:27:43 by carnkie)
Barite (Barytes) Barium sulphate (BaSO4). Used as a heavy additive in oil-well-drilling mud, in the paper and rubber industries, as a filler or extender in cloth, ink, and plastics products and in radiography.

Click here to discuss Barite (Barytes) in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 03:42:59 by Jimbo)
Barracks Building where miners lived through the working week.

Click here to discuss Barracks in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:25:50 by Barney)
Barren Said of rock or vein material containing no minerals of value, and of strata without coal, or containing coal in seams too thin to be workable.

Click here to discuss Barren in the forum (last modified 09/09/2007 19:18:54 by Clunk)
Baryte Barium sulphate.

Click here to discuss Baryte in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:15:10 by carnkie)
Bate The line of cleavage in a slate block

Click here to discuss Bate in the forum (last modified 11/07/2007 23:18:14 by Captain Scarlet)
Beam work An east Cornwall word for an openwork, where the load was worked from surface as a trench. See Coffin.

Click here to discuss Beam work in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:16:55 by carnkie)
Bedding The characteristic of a sedimentary rock that results from the layering of individual grains and reflecting the sedimentation process when the rock was laid down. Strong bedding will result in a rock that cleaves well in only one direction, such as flagstones.

Click here to discuss Bedding in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:47:02 by Peter Burgess)
Beneficiation The practice of processing ore(usually by crushing and density separating in water or air) to improve the ore grade to the point at which it can be smelted.

Click here to discuss Beneficiation in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:19:30 by carnkie)
Beu-heyl Live stream; rich for tin.

Click here to discuss Beu-heyl in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 11:58:47 by carnkie)
Binder Timber man.

Click here to discuss Binder in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 11:59:12 by carnkie)
Bing In Central Scotland, the term for the spoil heap of a mine, esp. W Lothian oil shale mines. Also pit bing and coal bing.

Click here to discuss Bing in the forum (last modified 31/07/2008 08:22:43 by patch)
Bing A measurement of weight applied to mined material. Approx 400kg

Click here to discuss Bing in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:37:03 by Captain Scarlet)
Bingstead Storage bay for dressed lead ore

Click here to discuss Bingstead in the forum (last modified 25/06/2007 17:56:59 by sparty_lea)
Bitting On Notts. mining term for impending roof collapse.See also Godsend

Click here to discuss Bitting On in the forum (last modified 31/12/2007 02:10:26 by Bones)
Black jack Sphalerite, Zinc sulphide, an ore of zinc.

Click here to discuss Black jack in the forum (last modified 25/06/2007 18:01:58 by sparty_lea)
Black Tin Tin ore washed and cleaned for smelting.

Click here to discuss Black Tin in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 11:59:54 by carnkie)
Blondin A wire rope, supported by wooden towers, where a system of pulleys would raise, move and lower rock.

Click here to discuss Blondin in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:28:05 by Barney)
Blowing-house A building containing a tin-smelting furnace. From art least the 13th century Cornish blowing-houses had a water-wheel which powered the bellows used to increase the heat of the furnace. From the end of the 17th century they were gradually replaced by reverberatory furnaces.

Click here to discuss Blowing-house in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:22:59 by carnkie)
Bog The action of removing mullock or ore after firing a face. Eg: hand-bog

Click here to discuss Bog in the forum (last modified 21/10/2008 10:22:54 by heritagerat)
bogger A mechanical shoveller used in removing mullock or ore after firing.
A term used by miners in Victoria Australia.

Click here to discuss bogger in the forum (last modified 21/10/2008 10:26:25 by heritagerat)
Borer Old name for drill steel.

Click here to discuss Borer in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:23:38 by carnkie)
Boring machine A 19th-century name for a compressed air-powered rock drill.

Click here to discuss Boring machine in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:24:56 by carnkie)
Bothy A rudimentary hostel for miners at a mine site esp. at distant or isolated mines. Also where mineworks ate.

Click here to discuss Bothy in the forum (last modified 31/07/2008 09:03:25 by patch)
Bound The area in which tinners worked. Its boundaries or bounds were marked by piles of turfs which were renewed every year when the bounds were re-registered at an itinerant stannary court. Tin bounds almost always had names and the tinners' names were registered upon payment of a small fee.

Click here to discuss Bound in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:35:49 by carnkie)
Bouse Lead ore straight from the mine

Click here to discuss Bouse in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:50:42 by Captain Scarlet)
Bouse Team A building or container for storing mined material

Click here to discuss Bouse Team in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:38:26 by Captain Scarlet)
Bowk. A large iron barrel used when sinking a shaft. (see also, kibble)

Click here to discuss Bowk. in the forum (last modified 29/01/2008 16:27:07 by Gwyn)
Bowl furnace Early furnaces of simple construction for smelting tin and other metals. The furnace consisted of a pit dug in the ground covered by a domed, stone-built structure. It was lined with clay, had a small tuyere or opening to receive a draft and an opening in the top to allow smoke and fumes to escape. The tin concentrate (cassiterite, or black tin) was placed in the furnace with charcoal and heated to a high temperature by means of a draft or hand-operated bellows.

Click here to discuss Bowl furnace in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 14:34:26 by carnkie)
Bucking The breaking down of copper ore on an anvil to about 10mm in diameter by bal-maids using small hammers, after which the ore was separated from the waste by hand. This process followed cobbing, in which it had been broken down to about 25mm in diameter, the waste again being hand removed. These processes, through which the majority of the highest quality copper ore was recovered, took place within roofed structures called bucking houses.

Click here to discuss Bucking in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:27:36 by carnkie)
Buddle Circular pit where ore is seperated from waste rock.

Click here to discuss Buddle in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:29:02 by Barney)
Buddle-work. The treatment of finely ground tin-bearing sands by gentle sluicing, in which a heavier fraction of the fed pulp is built up (buddled) while the lighter fraction flows to discard. This is continued until a satisfactory concentrate is produced.

Click here to discuss Buddle-work. in the forum (last modified 15/01/2008 15:30:01 by Gwyn)
Burning House Construction with a furnace for burning off unwanted arsenides and sulphides. Used from at least the 16th century, particularly as more load matrerial was being processed.

Click here to discuss Burning House in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:30:19 by carnkie)
Butty The name given to a close working pal and used commonly in the Welsh and Forest of Dean mines - he is my butty

Click here to discuss Butty in the forum (last modified 07/10/2009 16:18:19 by Dave Tuffley)
Back to Top

C


Caban A small shelter built by the miners usually used as a place of rest and lunch. Built from waste rock.

Click here to discuss Caban in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:31:55 by Barney)
Cage Modern conveyance for carrying men up and down a shaft. Originally referred to the drum carrying the rope of the hoisting gear.

Click here to discuss Cage in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:32:40 by carnkie)
Calamine An ore of zinc. It was used with copper to produce brass, and its presence in the mendips close to the early 18th century Bristol brass foundries helped to establish the brass industry there.

Click here to discuss Calamine in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:37:36 by carnkie)
Calciner Furnace for roasting ore to remove arsenides and sulphides. William Brunton's and other 19th century calciners were also designed to remove arsenic to be sold.

Click here to discuss Calciner in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:39:27 by carnkie)
Calcite Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), a common gangue mineral found associated with ore minerals. Calcite is the principal component of limestones, marble and other calcareous sedimentary rocks.

Click here to discuss Calcite in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 03:36:46 by Jimbo)
Calish Sedimentary rock.

Click here to discuss Calish in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 12:13:24 by carnkie)
Call In the cost-book system of mine management it was frquently necessary to ask adventurers for money to keep the mine going. The amount asked for depended on the number of shares the adventurer owned. The demand for this money was knwn as a 'call'.

Click here to discuss Call in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:41:47 by carnkie)
Caple A stone somewhat similar to limestone which comprises the walls of most lodes.

Click here to discuss Caple in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 12:11:53 by carnkie)
Capstan Winch for hoisting heavy gear up and down the shaft.

Click here to discuss Capstan in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:43:18 by carnkie)
Carbonas Irregular offshoots of minerals from lodes.

Click here to discuss Carbonas in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 12:12:44 by carnkie)
Cassiterite Tin dioxide (SnO2), an ore of tin. Used to coat so-called “tin” cans, since tin does not oxidize (rust) in air or water. Also used for alloys such as bronze/pewter and in electrical applications as mainly low-melting-point solders.

Click here to discuss Cassiterite in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 02:40:19 by Jimbo)
Caunter When two lodes intersect, one is said to be caunter to the other diagonal lode.

Click here to discuss Caunter in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 12:14:44 by carnkie)
Chalcopyrite Copper iron sulphide (CuFeS2), an ore of copper. Used in electric cables and wires, switches, plumbing, heating, roofing and building construction, chemical and pharmaceutical machinery, alloys (brass & bronze), alloy castings, electroplated protective coatings etc.

Click here to discuss Chalcopyrite in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 03:41:56 by Jimbo)
Chalk well A single shaft mine for chalk with a small number of chambers dug out horizontally from the base. Largely post-medieval. Sometimes referred to as deneholes. The chalk was nearly always dug as fertiliser.

Click here to discuss Chalk well in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:32:27 by Peter Burgess)
Chamber Slightly larger than a stope; an area of ore or rock, which has been developed enough that the stope or flat (in the case of ore mining) becomes a chamber. Most slate mines are worked using chambers, as are many limestone mines, depending on how much good quality vein material there is.

Click here to discuss Chamber in the forum (last modified 21/06/2007 21:11:42 by LAP)
Churn A chamber, local phrase used in the forest of Dean.

Click here to discuss Churn in the forum (last modified 18/06/2011 13:54:21 by Barney)
Chute Timber or steel structure for facilitating the loading of wagons underground. Usually erected in short 'box-hole' raises beneath stopes. 'Cousin Jacks' was the name given to a widely used design of chute as colonials saw them as typically Cornish.

Click here to discuss Chute in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:46:32 by carnkie)
Clack Non-return valve in the rising main of a typical Cornish pitwork. So called because of the sound it made when closing as the pump rod paused and the weight of water closed the valve.

Click here to discuss Clack in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:48:53 by carnkie)
Clog A lump of slate taken from the quarry face

Click here to discuss Clog in the forum (last modified 11/07/2007 23:20:58 by Captain Scarlet)
Clogh Clogh (meaning stone or rock) is a former mining village in Kilkenny,Ireland.

Click here to discuss Clogh in the forum (last modified 30/05/2008 13:38:40 by JAC)
Closehead The Cumbrian name given to an underground slate mine.

Click here to discuss Closehead in the forum (last modified 21/06/2007 21:15:14 by LAP)
Coffin Old Cornish word for an open work, where the lode has been worked from the surface as a trench.

Click here to discuss Coffin in the forum (last modified 16/10/2007 16:50:41 by carnkie)
Coffin/Roman Level Ancient levels sometimes dating back to the Romans. They are the shape of a coffin so that no more effort was used than was neccessary in driving a level that was just large enough to fit one miner. They display early pick marks and some can be extremely narrow.

Click here to discuss Coffin/Roman Level in the forum (last modified 30/03/2012 19:49:02 by Rheidol United)
Collar The area around the top of a shaft, usually dressed in stone or timber.

Click here to discuss Collar in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:38:42 by Mr Mike)
Combed Ore Veins made up of layers of different materials parallel to the walls.

Click here to discuss Combed Ore in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:19:15 by carnkie)
Concentrate Dressed ore ready for smelting

Click here to discuss Concentrate in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:39:13 by Captain Scarlet)
Conglomerate Consolidated gravel, pebbles , and boulders in a cementing fine-grained matrix.

Click here to discuss Conglomerate in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:20:31 by carnkie)
Contortion Crumbling and twisting of stratified rocks.

Click here to discuss Contortion in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:21:37 by carnkie)
Core Division of time, shift. Usually 8 hours, with three cores per day. If work is difficult with water or bad air, four or six hours were usual.

Click here to discuss Core in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:23:20 by carnkie)
Costean Shallow pit to trace or find tin.

Click here to discuss Costean in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:24:12 by carnkie)
Count House House or room on mine where adventurers transact their business.

Click here to discuss Count House in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:25:09 by carnkie)
Country Rock The rock containing the load fissue.

Click here to discuss Country Rock in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:25:42 by carnkie)
Courses of Ore Deposits of ore having small vertical but considerable lateral extent.

Click here to discuss Courses of Ore in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:27:03 by carnkie)
Creazes Work of dressing tin in middle part of the buddle.

Click here to discuss Creazes in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:28:01 by carnkie)
Creeper A short endless chain in a fixed race, usually electrically driven (Ocassionally air driven). Always situated on a bend and used to bring tubs and minecars safely round a corner without leaving the track.

Click here to discuss Creeper in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:47:24 by emleymick)
Crop Ore of tin dressed and cleaned for smelting. Finest black tin. Average value of ratio 1 : 2 of white tin; second quality called Rows-ratio 3 : 10.

Click here to discuss Crop in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:30:09 by carnkie)
Cross cut Access tunnel driven to cut a lode

Click here to discuss Cross cut in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:34:25 by Barney)
Cross-Course A fault crossing a mineral vein, often terminating or displacing the vein.

Click here to discuss Cross-Course in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 12:58:22 by Captain Scarlet)
Crystallisation Assumption by matter of a definate geometrical form.

Click here to discuss Crystallisation in the forum (last modified 22/03/2008 17:31:11 by carnkie)
Back to Top

D


Day Mining term meaning 'Surface' or 'Outside'

Click here to discuss Day in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:38:08 by Mr Mike)
Day Level A level driven directly from the surface

Click here to discuss Day Level in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 19:35:12 by Captain Scarlet)
Dead ground Ground without mineral values.

Click here to discuss Dead ground in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:00:27 by carnkie)
Dead Men Miners working on jobs that did not produce ore. Examples include Level driving and Walling

Click here to discuss Dead Men in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:40:54 by Captain Scarlet)
Deads Waste rock stacked in the roof or walls

Click here to discuss Deads in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:24:21 by Barney)
Decking An unlikely and painful event caused by descending off the bottom of your SRT rope.

Click here to discuss Decking in the forum (last modified 30/06/2007 14:24:14 by Wormster)
Deerpark Mine Coalmine in Castlecomer,which closed in 1969

Click here to discuss Deerpark Mine in the forum (last modified 30/05/2008 13:36:04 by JAC)
Denehole A single shaft mine for chalk with horizontal chambers dug from the base. Usually much better executed than chalk wells. Mostly older than chalk wells dating from medieval times.

Click here to discuss Denehole in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:34:17 by Peter Burgess)
Derrick A sexton, digger or miner.

Click here to discuss Derrick in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:01:07 by carnkie)
Dib North Pennine term for an inclined drift (or decline) . See also rill

Click here to discuss Dib in the forum (last modified 17/04/2009 12:12:16 by sparty_lea)
Dint/Dinting Breaking up and removing the floor of a roadway to gain more height.

Click here to discuss Dint/Dinting in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:18:52 by emleymick)
Dip The angle of inclination of beds or strata measured in relation to a horizontal line.

Click here to discuss Dip in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:05:51 by carnkie)
Dippa A pit or hole sunk in the lode to collect water to be drawn out by small barrels; also a pit sunk in a bunch of ore.

Click here to discuss Dippa in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:03:36 by carnkie)
Dipple An main inclined underground slope or roadway, commonly used in the Forest of Dean coal and iron ore fields

Click here to discuss Dipple in the forum (last modified 26/10/2009 14:48:36 by Dave Tuffley)
Dislocation The displacement of rocks on either side if a fissue-a fault.

Click here to discuss Dislocation in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:07:01 by carnkie)
Dol Any part or share of the adventure of tin ore. A meadow divided into shares was called a dol meadow.

Click here to discuss Dol in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:08:34 by carnkie)
Dolly tub A hand-operated gravity separation device for dressing ore.

Click here to discuss Dolly tub in the forum (last modified 28/06/2007 23:28:44 by sparty_lea)
Dowsing The determination of vein location from the surface using a forked twig or pendulum

Click here to discuss Dowsing in the forum (last modified 30/07/2007 13:30:01 by Captain Scarlet)
Dreg Brake: "You could stop a moving tub by spoking its wheels with a 'dreg'"

Click here to discuss Dreg in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 02:18:09 by Jimbo)
Dresser A person who superintends the boys at a stamping mill, or men, boys and girls in the copper bal commonly called pickers, cobbers and jiggers. The man who directs the various manuductions and lotions of ore for sale.

Click here to discuss Dresser in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:11:11 by carnkie)
Dressing Separating ore from waste rock and gangue minerals

Click here to discuss Dressing in the forum (last modified 25/06/2007 17:58:56 by sparty_lea)
Drift The entrance tunnel to a mine, though unlike adits drifs are always inclined. Many coal and hematite mines are drifs, as well as some slate mines, namely ones on the velley floor. Many mines also have internal drifs - driven downwards in the vein, as well as drift-coss-cuts.

Click here to discuss Drift in the forum (last modified 21/06/2007 21:14:21 by LAP)
Drumhouse Structure built to support the winding mechanism at the head of an incline.

Click here to discuss Drumhouse in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:35:26 by Barney)
Dun-mywn A hill of minerals.

Click here to discuss Dun-mywn in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:11:54 by carnkie)
Dyke A vertical or highly dipping injected sheet of eruptive origin. Igneous rock injected into fissues of older rocks; it is more or less vertical and wall-like.

Click here to discuss Dyke in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 11:13:52 by carnkie)
Back to Top

E


Eluvial Ore lying on or near the surface downslope from the lode outcrop. Not alluvium.

Click here to discuss Eluvial in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:12:21 by carnkie)
Engine shaft Shaft dug and fitted with pumping equipment.

Click here to discuss Engine shaft in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:36:11 by Barney)
Back to Top

F


False floor A hard to identify wooden floor spanning a stope or a shaft - a common danger in metal mines.

Click here to discuss False floor in the forum (last modified 24/12/2012 19:13:26 by Rheidol United)
Fathom Standard mining unit of distance. Approximately 6 feet.

Click here to discuss Fathom in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 13:05:19 by Captain Scarlet)
Fault A fracture of strata, accompanied by displacement of the rock on one or both sides of the fracture.

Click here to discuss Fault in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:15:22 by carnkie)
Firedamp Alternative term for a build up of methane.

Click here to discuss Firedamp in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:31:41 by emleymick)
fire-setting old mining method used to weaken veins and rocks by building a fire against a working face and then quenching with water. Described by Pliny the Elder in 77 AD and Agricola in De Re Metallica in 16th century.

Click here to discuss fire-setting in the forum (last modified 08/04/2008 10:57:07 by peterlewis)
Firestone. A stone or rock capable of withstanding a considerable amount of heat without injury. The term has been used in reference to certain Cretaceous and Jurassic sandstones employed in the manufacture of glass furnaces.

Click here to discuss Firestone. in the forum (last modified 15/01/2008 15:40:57 by Gwyn)
Fissure lode A lode in what was once a fissure, opened by earth movement.

Click here to discuss Fissure lode in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:16:51 by carnkie)
Fissures Open cracks.

Click here to discuss Fissures in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:15:57 by carnkie)
Flat Rods Reciprocating rods used to transfer power from a steam-engine or water-wheel to a remote location.

Click here to discuss Flat Rods in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:43:06 by Captain Scarlet)
Flats Horizontal vein working

Click here to discuss Flats in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 19:34:18 by Captain Scarlet)
Floran Small grained tin. Scarcely perceivable in stone, but very rich. Any tin stamped exceedingly fine is called floran tin (flower tin)

Click here to discuss Floran in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:18:42 by carnkie)
Fluorspar (fluorite) Fluorspar (fluorite) is calcium fluoride (CaF2). It is used in the production of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and aluminum fluoride (AlF3) and as a flux in making steel, glass, enamel, and other products.

Click here to discuss Fluorspar (fluorite) in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 02:29:25 by Jimbo)
Foge Forge or blowing-house for smelting tin.

Click here to discuss Foge in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:19:34 by carnkie)
Foot An ancient measure for black tin-2 gallons; now a nominal measure, but in weight-60lb.

Click here to discuss Foot in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:20:59 by carnkie)
Footrid Ironbridge/Broseley area term for an adit.

Click here to discuss Footrid in the forum (last modified 06/05/2009 23:53:55 by Cat_Bones)
Footwall The lower side or boundary of a lode.

Click here to discuss Footwall in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:21:49 by carnkie)
Freestone A good quality building stone that was capable of being cut in any direction. Stones with prominent bedding planes are less likely to be good freestones.

Click here to discuss Freestone in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:43:33 by Peter Burgess)
Back to Top

G


Gale Forest of Dean term to describe the mine as a whole, used in the same way as the more widespread "Sett".

Click here to discuss Gale in the forum (last modified 15/03/2008 11:53:37 by JR)
Galena Lead sulphide, an ore of lead.

Click here to discuss Galena in the forum (last modified 25/06/2007 18:02:28 by sparty_lea)
Galloway A pack horse.

Click here to discuss Galloway in the forum (last modified 28/06/2007 23:23:15 by sparty_lea)
Gamboreen Used to describe a wooden beam attached to a shaft winding rope. From it descended 4 chains which were attached to the pit cage or sometimes directly to the 4 corners of a pit cart. Gamboreen described the whole attachment system. Used in the Forest of Dean

Click here to discuss Gamboreen in the forum (last modified 26/10/2009 15:17:34 by Dave Tuffley)
Gangue Minerals of no economic importance found together with ore minerals.

Click here to discuss Gangue in the forum (last modified 25/06/2007 18:00:08 by sparty_lea)
Gate A general term for a roadway, ie: "Maingate" (Intake air) and "Tail gate" (Return air)

Click here to discuss Gate in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:38:23 by emleymick)
Gin A horse powered winding device for raising material up a shaft

Click here to discuss Gin in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:42:24 by Captain Scarlet)
Ginging Stone lining to a shaft.

Click here to discuss Ginging in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:38:21 by Barney)
Goaf The waste or caved area behind an advancing or retreating coal face. Sometimes called waste or "The Gob"

Click here to discuss Goaf in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:52:58 by emleymick)
Gob Stone quarry waste - small stones, dust and chippings. Term in use in Surrey.

Click here to discuss Gob in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 13:25:19 by Peter Burgess)
Gobbins Waste area left to collapse behind advancing coal face supports

Click here to discuss Gobbins in the forum (last modified 31/12/2007 02:00:35 by Bones)
Godsend A warning of impending roof or wall collapse for example creaking timbers or trickles of gravel

Click here to discuss Godsend in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:50:15 by Captain Scarlet)
Goughty The name given to very acidic rust coloured water leaching out from a coal seam. Caused by the decay of iron pyrites attached to the coal by the acid in the water. (pronouced ghow-tee)

Click here to discuss Goughty in the forum (last modified 26/10/2009 15:09:33 by Dave Tuffley)
Grizzly Steel girders forming a mesh over an underground ore pass where ore is effectively sized. Pieces which are too big must be broken by hammer or explosive to allow them to pass through the steel mesh.

Click here to discuss Grizzly in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:35:13 by emleymick)
Grouan Rough pebbles.

Click here to discuss Grouan in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:23:48 by carnkie)
Guag Emptiness. Tinners working in a place which has been wrought before call it "holeing in guag"'

Click here to discuss Guag in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:25:17 by carnkie)
Gulph Large quantities of ore which continue in depth.

Click here to discuss Gulph in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:26:19 by carnkie)
Gunnies Breadth or width. Single gunnies are 3 feet wide. Former vaults or cavities dug in any mine are termed "the old gunnies".

Click here to discuss Gunnies in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 17:28:26 by carnkie)
Back to Top

H


Hade Inclination of the lode or fault to the vertical. Sometimes the fissue splits around a particularly stubborn piece of country rock so that the vein or lode splits into two streams. In this case the central piece of rock is known as a 'horse' or 'rider'.

Click here to discuss Hade in the forum (last modified 29/03/2008 10:56:35 by carnkie)
Hanging Death Large lumps of rock (usually in the roof) waiting to give the mine explorer a really bad day!

Click here to discuss Hanging Death in the forum (last modified 24/07/2009 12:04:10 by Wormster)
Hanging Wall The rock on the upper side of a vein or ore deposit

Click here to discuss Hanging Wall in the forum (last modified 13/02/2008 14:32:19 by Captain Scarlet)
Headframe The tall construction set over a winding shaft which carried the sheave wheels over which the winding ropes ran

Click here to discuss Headframe in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:43:57 by Captain Scarlet)
Hearthstone A stone mined for use as a mineral pigment to coat stone doorsteps, widow sills and hearths. In fashion from the early 19th century until the mid 20th. Hearthstone was sold as lumps of raw material, or crushed to powder and sold in sprinkler cans. Also moulded with cement to make artificial hearthstones. The best known mines operated in East Surrey and worked the Upper Greensand.

Click here to discuss Hearthstone in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 13:23:43 by Peter Burgess)
Hematite Iron oxide (Fe2O3), a principal ore of iron, also known as kidney ore due to it's shape & appearance.

Click here to discuss Hematite in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 02:53:08 by Jimbo)
Hodding A method of moving coal or iron ore in thin seams usually carried out by a young boy pulling a box on sled runners (a hod) by means of a leather strap attached by both ends on the front of the hod. A slit was made in the middle of the loop of the strap and the boy put his head through the slit and the strap rested on his shoulders when pulling the hod along. Used in the Forest of Dean coal and iron mines

Click here to discuss Hodding in the forum (last modified 22/10/2009 16:22:52 by Dave Tuffley)
Horse See "Rider"

Click here to discuss Horse in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 13:15:39 by Captain Scarlet)
Hotching A method of separating ore from waste by repeatedly sieving up and down in a hotching tub

Click here to discuss Hotching in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:43:49 by Captain Scarlet)
Hundt A type of sledge used by miners in Germany for drawing the ore out from drift mines. The term was brought to this country by the German miners used by Queen Elizabeth in the 16th century

Click here to discuss Hundt in the forum (last modified 18/05/2008 19:17:45 by historydb)
Hushing Hushing is the practice of creating a dam in a small valley, filling it with water, then releasing this torrent of water which washes away the topsoil and thus exposing the vein. In this respect it can be considered as a process of vein location rather than an extractive process.

Click here to discuss Hushing in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 08:39:31 by Captain Scarlet)
hydraulic mining generic term used to describe methods employing large volumes of water to assist removal of overburden and extraction of ore; includes methods such as hushing (qv) and hydraulicing; widely used in the Roman period and during most gold rushes

Click here to discuss hydraulic mining in the forum (last modified 08/04/2008 10:52:11 by peterlewis)
hydraulicing Method of hydraulic mining used extensively by Romans and later miners to prospect for ore veins and extract ores, especially gold, tin and lead-silver. Used widely in the Californian gold rush.

Click here to discuss hydraulicing in the forum (last modified 08/04/2008 10:53:50 by peterlewis)
Hydrothermal A mineral deposit where the economically important minerals have precipitated from a hydrothermal (hot water) solution.



Click here to discuss Hydrothermal in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 03:27:06 by Jimbo)
Back to Top

I


Inbye The word inbye is usually known in coalminers' jargon as an adverb of direction meaning "toward the coal face"

Click here to discuss Inbye in the forum (last modified 30/06/2007 14:26:30 by Wormster)
Incline-balanced Parallel tracks where the weight of loaded wagons descending pulled empty wagons back to the top

Click here to discuss Incline-balanced in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:44:35 by Barney)
Incline-chain Device running on chain or wire rope instead of rails

Click here to discuss Incline-chain in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:45:25 by Barney)
Incline-mass balanced Single track with iron weight (see Mochyn) running between the rails to balance weight of descending load.

Click here to discuss Incline-mass balanced in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:46:47 by Barney)
Incline-powered Device where powered drum was used to haul loads upwards.

Click here to discuss Incline-powered in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:47:44 by Barney)
Incline-table Wagons are carried on a moving table rather than the rails themselves.

Click here to discuss Incline-table in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 10:48:53 by Barney)
Back to Top

J


Jackroll Also known as a "Windlass". A hand turned machine for raising material up a shaft or rise.

Click here to discuss Jackroll in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 13:06:47 by Captain Scarlet)
Jangalies Common term used to describe srt gear.

Click here to discuss Jangalies in the forum (last modified 30/06/2007 14:20:59 by Wormster)
jem crow device for putting curves in track rails used in Lancs coalmines probably a local name

Click here to discuss jem crow in the forum (last modified 01/09/2008 19:02:42 by pricey)
Jig A piece of milling equipment used to concentrate ore on a screen submerged in water, either by the reciprocating motion of the screen or by the pulsation of water through it

Click here to discuss Jig in the forum (last modified 13/02/2008 14:31:04 by Captain Scarlet)
Jim crow See jem crow for explanation. Expression used in but not just common to the Forest of Dean

Click here to discuss Jim crow in the forum (last modified 07/10/2009 16:12:35 by Dave Tuffley)
jocky boy a lad who led a horse pulling a journey of carts underground. used in the Forest of Dean coal and iron ore mines

Click here to discuss jocky boy in the forum (last modified 22/10/2009 16:24:49 by Dave Tuffley)
Judd Coal/stone ready to be brought down: "the cutting of the judd"

Click here to discuss Judd in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 02:11:19 by Jimbo)
Jumper Hand held drilling bar of varying length

Click here to discuss Jumper in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 13:20:05 by Captain Scarlet)
Jwmpah Long weighted rod used to manually bore a hole. Used before the advent of compressed air drills.

Click here to discuss Jwmpah in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 06:38:53 by merddinemrys)
Back to Top

K


Kibble Large bucket for raising ore

Click here to discuss Kibble in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:44:37 by Barney)
Back to Top

L


Labirynth A (usually) stone built construction to slow the smoke when tin or copper ore is calcined in areas where arsenic is present. Slowing the passage of air allows the arsenic to 'condense' on the walls as 'arsenic soot' which was collected to be sold as a by product. (Also see "Arsenic Flu").

Click here to discuss Labirynth in the forum (last modified 08/03/2008 16:22:22 by JR)
Leaching A chemical process for the extraction of valuable minerals from ore

Click here to discuss Leaching in the forum (last modified 13/02/2008 14:29:41 by Captain Scarlet)
Leat Surface channel for conveying water

Click here to discuss Leat in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:45:21 by Barney)
Level Horizontal tunnel driven for access or drainage

Click here to discuss Level in the forum (last modified 03/01/2008 17:43:24 by Mr Mike)
Lobby The excavated cutting running up to an adit portal

Click here to discuss Lobby in the forum (last modified 03/01/2008 17:44:18 by Mr Mike)
Lode Ore bearing vein

Click here to discuss Lode in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:44:19 by Captain Scarlet)
Back to Top

M


Maddock A single pointed narrow pick of considerable weight. The head contained a rectangular slot for the handle which was held in place by a large wedge. Term recorded in the late 19th century in Surrey.

Click here to discuss Maddock in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:40:30 by Peter Burgess)
Magazine Small strongly built store containing explosives

Click here to discuss Magazine in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:45:00 by Captain Scarlet)
Malachite Copper carbonate (Cu2CO3(OH)2), an ore of copper.

Click here to discuss Malachite in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 02:56:30 by Jimbo)
Manchester Gate Swing open/close girder formed gate used to arrest runaway or prevent runaway coal mine vehicles

Click here to discuss Manchester Gate in the forum (last modified 31/12/2007 01:43:07 by Bones)
Mine. 1. Suterraniaan excavation made in connection with exloitation of, or search for, minerals of economic interest.
The terms quarry, pit and opencast are reserved for workings open to daylight.
2. Term (N. England) for any coal seem irrespective of grade or thickness.

Click here to discuss Mine. in the forum (last modified 14/01/2008 15:57:51 by Gwyn)
minepit Term used in Surrey, Sussex and Kent (the Weald) to describe shallow shaft excavations for iron ore. The iron ore was called 'mine'.


Click here to discuss minepit in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:35:45 by Peter Burgess)
Mochyn The iron weighted balancing trolley of a mass balanced incline.

Click here to discuss Mochyn in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:48:13 by Barney)
Back to Top

N


Nappling Large lumps of coal left over after screening. (Lancashire area term)

Click here to discuss Nappling in the forum (last modified 18/07/2007 10:37:53 by Wormster)
Nellie A forest of Dean expression - a ball of clay in which a candle was placed in the top. A forked stick was then placed in the side and the other end was held in the side of the iron ore miner's mouth. Another stick was placed in the bottom and this approx sat on the miner's shoulder. This gave the light to the side and did not glare into the miners's eyes when using

Click here to discuss Nellie in the forum (last modified 19/07/2008 11:50:22 by Dave Tuffley)
Nesh A Forest of Dean expression used to describe a seam of soft, friable coal

Click here to discuss Nesh in the forum (last modified 26/10/2009 14:57:21 by Dave Tuffley)
Back to Top

O


Ochre. 1. Naturally occuring red, yellow and brown iron oxides, or clays strongly coloured by iron oxides (limonite), formed by residual weathering and used as pigments.
2. Highly coloured alteration products from other metals, eg chrome ochre. Also, see umber.

Click here to discuss Ochre. in the forum (last modified 20/08/2008 16:39:58 by Gwyn)
Old Man A previous generation of miners.
The term can also be used to refer to earlier generations workings.

Click here to discuss Old Man in the forum (last modified 25/06/2007 21:25:15 by sparty_lea)
Old Men's Workings / Danes' Works (Ireland) Visible remains of mining activity from antiquity, with uncertain historical evidence of their period.

Click here to discuss Old Men's Workings / Danes' Works (Ireland) in the forum (last modified 07/03/2012 10:22:24 by slowburner)
Open stope / open cast A stope coming to the surface.

Click here to discuss Open stope / open cast in the forum (last modified 30/11/2011 12:18:57 by Rheidol United)
Ore Pass A small shaft or a partitioned section in a larger shaft used purely for dropping ore down to a lower level

Click here to discuss Ore Pass in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 13:12:26 by Captain Scarlet)
Ore Shoot Workable area within a vein or lode

Click here to discuss Ore Shoot in the forum (last modified 03/01/2008 17:41:27 by Mr Mike)
Ore slide / ore bin A semi-circle stone bowl with an enterance at the bottom for undressed ore.

Click here to discuss Ore slide / ore bin in the forum (last modified 06/12/2011 19:37:30 by Rheidol United)
outbye The word outbye is usually known as coalminers' jargon as an adverb of direction meaning "away from the coal face".

Click here to discuss outbye in the forum (last modified 30/06/2007 14:27:03 by Wormster)
Outcrop Location of a mineral vein at the surface

Click here to discuss Outcrop in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 12:59:18 by Captain Scarlet)
Overburden The topsoil and subsoil removed in the process of opening or extending a quarry or mine.

Click here to discuss Overburden in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:45:51 by Captain Scarlet)
Back to Top

P


Pack wall Waste rock stacked at side of a level to form a wall

Click here to discuss Pack wall in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:49:38 by Barney)
Parcel An amount of dressed ore ready for selling.

Click here to discuss Parcel in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:40:27 by Mr Mike)
Pelton Wheel A small enclosed water turbine, working at high pressure and rotational speeds

Click here to discuss Pelton Wheel in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:46:31 by Captain Scarlet)
Pig An ingot of metal cast at the smelter.

Click here to discuss Pig in the forum (last modified 30/06/2007 18:00:47 by sparty_lea)
Pillar Area of rock left undisturbed to support the roof. Timbers can also be used for this

Click here to discuss Pillar in the forum (last modified 03/01/2008 17:49:28 by Mr Mike)
Pit. 1. A place where minerals are dug.
2. The shaft of a mine. The pit eye is the bottom, whence daylight is visible; the pit frame is the superstructure carrying poppet head and sheaves. The pit head is the surface landing gear.

Click here to discuss Pit. in the forum (last modified 14/01/2008 16:03:45 by Gwyn)
Please A word often missed following a respectful request for help!

Click here to discuss Please in the forum (last modified 25/08/2008 15:15:09 by Barney)
Plug and Feathers A tool consisting of two half round, tapered, short bars and a wedge. The two bars are inserted into a pre-drilled hole and then the wedge is hammered down between them, splitting the rock. Along with fire-setting, this was a common method of level driving before the introduction of gunpowder

Click here to discuss Plug and Feathers in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 13:03:49 by Captain Scarlet)
Portal A mine entrance

Click here to discuss Portal in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:45:04 by Captain Scarlet)
Pyrite (Fools Gold) Iron sulphide (FeS2), a common gangue mineral found associated with ore minerals.

Click here to discuss Pyrite (Fools Gold) in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 03:24:36 by Jimbo)
Back to Top

Q


Quadrant cutter A 'bar' cutting machine similar to a 'radial percussive coal-cutter'. A heavy machine usually mounted on a tram, which ran on rails. When in use the machine would be held in place by a column tightened between the roof and the floor. The Quadrant cutter was capable of cutting vertically as well as horizontally. Originally hand operated, later versions were driven by compressed air or electricity.

Click here to discuss Quadrant cutter in the forum (last modified 18/07/2007 10:39:08 by Wormster)
Quarry. 1. An open working or pit for granite, building stone, slate or other rock.
2. An underground working in a coal mine for stone to fill the goaf.
The distinction, in law, between a quarry and mine can be somewhat blurred. Usage implies surface workings open to the sky.

Click here to discuss Quarry. in the forum (last modified 14/01/2008 16:12:26 by Gwyn)
Quartz Silicon dioxide, or silica (SiO2), a common gangue mineral found associated with ore minerals.

Click here to discuss Quartz in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 03:25:21 by Jimbo)
Back to Top

R


Retreat The opposite of advance (Roadways mine out from pit bottom) Retreat is where roadways are driven first and a coal face retreats back generally towards pit bottom.

Click here to discuss Retreat in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:26:59 by emleymick)
Rider A barren section in the middle of a split vein. Also known as a "Horse"

Click here to discuss Rider in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 13:15:23 by Captain Scarlet)
Rill Same as a dib (decline) except driven from the bottom upward. (North Pennine term)

Click here to discuss Rill in the forum (last modified 17/04/2009 12:15:30 by sparty_lea)
Rip/Ripping Removing the stone and dirt above the coal in a roadway after the coal is cut in order to extend a roadway. Arch or squre girders are set to form and support the roadway.

Click here to discuss Rip/Ripping in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:22:22 by emleymick)
Rise Underground shaft driven upwards.

Click here to discuss Rise in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:50:33 by Barney)
Rive Splitting of slate

Click here to discuss Rive in the forum (last modified 11/07/2007 23:17:13 by Captain Scarlet)
Romming Usually clay material used to pack and seal an explosive charge into a shot hole. Maybe a local corruption of "ramming". Used in the Forest of Dean mines and quarries

Click here to discuss Romming in the forum (last modified 26/10/2009 14:55:08 by Dave Tuffley)
Royalty An area of land determined by the lease or a percentage payment demanded by the owner for the weight of mineral sold

Click here to discuss Royalty in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 19:33:08 by Captain Scarlet)
Run In When the roof or sides of an level collapse.

Click here to discuss Run In in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:42:37 by Mr Mike)
Back to Top

S


Sap The moisture content of a building stone fresh from the quarry. Stone was often stacked in seasoning sheds to allow the sap to dry out.

Click here to discuss Sap in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:41:53 by Peter Burgess)
Scappling A rough dressing process normally done withing the quarry, using a pick or axe-like tool. Scappling produces a roughly squared block suitable for fine dressing by stone masons.


Click here to discuss Scappling in the forum (last modified 16/09/2008 20:49:01 by Peter Burgess)
scotch steel rod used to stop coal trucks running away on inclines

Click here to discuss scotch in the forum (last modified 07/08/2008 18:30:38 by fredex3062)
Scowles Forest of Dean term for the deep linear gouges left in the ground when a lode has been followed from the surface. Recent research has indicated scowles may date back over 2000 years.

Click here to discuss Scowles in the forum (last modified 17/04/2008 17:35:35 by JR)
Screw Length of chewing tobacco

Click here to discuss Screw in the forum (last modified 31/12/2007 02:04:49 by Bones)
Sett Area of a mining lease.

Click here to discuss Sett in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:50:59 by Barney)
Sett The area of land indicated by a lease on which the miners gain access to the workings.

Click here to discuss Sett in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:30:42 by Mr Mike)
Shammeling A Cornish term for lifting ore from a mine to surface by an arrangement of 'steps' of men who shoveled ore from floor height to head height.Naturally this technique was used in small, relatively shallow workings. At greater depth it was worth the expense of conventional lifting gear.

Click here to discuss Shammeling in the forum (last modified 07/03/2008 20:44:16 by JR)
Sheave A groved pulley wheel

Click here to discuss Sheave in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:51:43 by Barney)
Shothole Hole bored into rock for the insertion of gunpowder

Click here to discuss Shothole in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:52:25 by Barney)
Sinc A Welsh name given to a pit quarry (normally slate), Depending on region. Also known as Twlls.

Click here to discuss Sinc in the forum (last modified 22/06/2007 16:26:01 by LAP)
Sinkers Miners who dug shafts

Click here to discuss Sinkers in the forum (last modified 07/01/2012 09:48:17 by Rheidol United)
Slickenside A rock surface that has become more or less polished and striated by slippage along a fault plane.

Click here to discuss Slickenside in the forum (last modified 06/12/2007 10:56:19 by Captain Scarlet)
Slimes The fine slurry from the mill that is created in the crushing process.

Click here to discuss Slimes in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:33:09 by Mr Mike)
Slipe The junction between slate and non-slate rock

Click here to discuss Slipe in the forum (last modified 11/07/2007 23:19:18 by Captain Scarlet)
Sole The floor of a level.

Click here to discuss Sole in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:29:23 by Mr Mike)
Sough (Pronounced "suff"). A passage or adit driven from the lowest point of a valley, horizontally into a hillside to dewater mines, often discharging into a stream or river. Larger soughs were sometimes used as pumpways

Click here to discuss Sough in the forum (last modified 19/01/2009 17:36:41 by sougher)
Spelter Zinc. See "Black Jack"

Click here to discuss Spelter in the forum (last modified 03/08/2007 11:26:10 by Captain Scarlet)
Sphalerite Zinc sulfide (ZnS), an ore of zinc. Used as protective coating on steel, as die casting, as an alloying metal with copper to make brass, and as chemical compounds in rubber and paints.

Click here to discuss Sphalerite in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 02:48:39 by Jimbo)
Spoil Area of waste rock

Click here to discuss Spoil in the forum (last modified 03/01/2008 17:48:12 by Mr Mike)
sprag A short length of wood or steel inserted in between the spokes of a truck or cart wheel to stop the wheel turning to stop or slow down the cart down an incline. Common expression in the Forest of Dean coal and iron ore field. Also used to describe a length of timber which was set at an angle against an undercut coal seam in order to prevent it breaking off the face prematurely and injuring the collier

Click here to discuss sprag in the forum (last modified 26/10/2009 15:02:11 by Dave Tuffley)
SRT Single Rope Technique, a means of descending and ascending mineshafts and voids, can be used above and below ground.

Click here to discuss SRT in the forum (last modified 30/06/2007 14:23:03 by Wormster)
stack timber lenths of scrap timber usually 2x2 stacked in box formation then filled with waste material and left as roof support

Click here to discuss stack timber in the forum (last modified 07/08/2008 18:34:03 by fredex3062)
Stemming The noncombustible material used on top or in front of a charge or explosive

Click here to discuss Stemming in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:37:36 by Captain Scarlet)
Stemple A timber beam wedged into a shaft or stope for use as a climbing aid or to provide support to the walls

Click here to discuss Stemple in the forum (last modified 26/06/2007 23:47:05 by Captain Scarlet)
Stocking of Clay Term used in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale/Broseley area for a clay-mine adit.

Click here to discuss Stocking of Clay in the forum (last modified 06/05/2009 23:52:52 by Cat_Bones)
Stook In reducing pillars of coal/stone, the last bit left supporting the roof is the stook.

Click here to discuss Stook in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 03:02:47 by Jimbo)
Stope A worked out area of ore, often considered to be more or less vertical. These were often "Backfilled" (see backfilled) - and had flase floors built across them to access other parts of the mine.

Click here to discuss Stope in the forum (last modified 21/06/2007 21:08:13 by LAP)
Stringer A very narrow vein.

Click here to discuss Stringer in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 07:31:22 by Mr Mike)
Stulm An adit; a small draining-shaft.
Origin unknown. Cf. German, stollen.

Click here to discuss Stulm in the forum (last modified 19/01/2009 15:31:16 by Gwyn)
Sump A development of the vein in the floor of the tunnel, also used to drain water.

Click here to discuss Sump in the forum (last modified 21/06/2007 21:17:18 by LAP)
Back to Top

T


Tailings The waste sand and slime from a mine dressing floor, not containing workable quantities of mineral

Click here to discuss Tailings in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:47:24 by Captain Scarlet)
Tips Rock extracted from the mine usually piled down the hillside under an adit, shaft, or level.

Click here to discuss Tips in the forum (last modified 30/11/2011 12:14:50 by Rheidol United)
Top Slicing The process of mining iron ore at a horizontal level (slice), then allowing the ground above to collapse into the slice, and then mining out another slice at a lower level.

Click here to discuss Top Slicing in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 19:32:06 by Captain Scarlet)
Tramp Iron General term for anythin metal which is redundant and has been left in an underground roadway.

Click here to discuss Tramp Iron in the forum (last modified 14/06/2009 13:49:49 by emleymick)
Trial An exploratory adit dug for the vain but not always successful

Click here to discuss Trial in the forum (last modified 07/01/2012 09:53:16 by Rheidol United)
Trunc The table of a trunc incline

Click here to discuss Trunc in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:53:39 by Barney)
Tutwork A system of payment whereby groups of miners contracted to work on a "payment by results" system at previously-agreed rates, usually for shaft sinking or driving levels

Click here to discuss Tutwork in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:47:56 by Captain Scarlet)
Twll An open surface quarry.

Click here to discuss Twll in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:54:13 by Barney)
Back to Top

U


Umber. Naturally occuring brown iron and manganese oxides, or clays strongly coloured by oxides, formed by residual weathering and valued as a pigment. Raw umber has a greenish tinge; burnt umber that has been calcined is dark brown.

Click here to discuss Umber. in the forum (last modified 20/08/2008 16:45:41 by Gwyn)
Undercut. A section at the base of the coalseam which has been cut away by hand or machine to make it easier to bring down the main body of coal by hand or by using explosives.

Click here to discuss Undercut. in the forum (last modified 18/07/2007 10:41:47 by Wormster)
Upcast The ventilation shaft that carries the foul air away from the workings.


Click here to discuss Upcast in the forum (last modified 18/07/2007 10:25:23 by Wormster)
Back to Top

V


Variometer Instrument for measuring magnetic declination in mine surveys.

Click here to discuss Variometer in the forum (last modified 18/07/2007 10:13:30 by Wormster)
Velocipede Railway "cart" either hand or pedal operated, used largely on the Padarn railway before the advent of workmen's trains. Fatalities were not unknown on these machines, a restored example can be seen at the national slate mining museum, Llanberis

Click here to discuss Velocipede in the forum (last modified 16/07/2010 14:40:10 by Jonesy83)
Vent or Vent hole. A small hole made with a 'pricker' through the 'stemming' in a 'shothole', which the 'squib' travels along to ignite the main charge.

Click here to discuss Vent or Vent hole. in the forum (last modified 04/11/2009 11:33:13 by SimonRL)
Ventilation Door Door fixed across a level to direct flow of air for ventilation

Click here to discuss Ventilation Door in the forum (last modified 03/01/2008 17:46:58 by Mr Mike)
Back to Top

W


Waterwheel Wheel fitted with buckets or paddles around its periphery, and driven by the weight or force of a stream of water directed onto them

Click here to discuss Waterwheel in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:48:24 by Captain Scarlet)
Wheelpit A structure built to house a water-wheel, often excavated and stone-lined, but sometimes free-standing

Click here to discuss Wheelpit in the forum (last modified 27/06/2007 22:48:49 by Captain Scarlet)
Whim Winding engine powered by horse, steam or water

Click here to discuss Whim in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:54:57 by Barney)
whip A devise used for raising stone from a shaft that would otherwise be too deep or heavy to raise via a windlass.

Click here to discuss whip in the forum (last modified 21/10/2008 10:19:17 by heritagerat)
Wibby Used to describe the portion of a coal seam where it is pinched thinner up against the roof by the thickening of the fireclay floor. Used in the Forest of Dean

Click here to discuss Wibby in the forum (last modified 07/10/2009 16:15:22 by Dave Tuffley)
Windlass A winding device operated by two men on top of a shaft / winze. A round wooden wheel with rope around to wind ore, a handle at both axle ends.

Click here to discuss Windlass in the forum (last modified 14/01/2012 14:54:12 by Rheidol United)
Winze Underground shaft driven downwards (see sump)

Click here to discuss Winze in the forum (last modified 23/06/2007 12:56:34 by Barney)
Wolframite Iron-manganese tungstate (Fe,Mn)WO4), an ore of Tungsten. Used in metalworking, construction and electrical machinery/equipment, in transportation equipment, as filament in lightbulbs, as a carbide in drilling equipment, in heat and radiation shielding, textile dyes, enamels, paints, and for coloring glass.

Click here to discuss Wolframite in the forum (last modified 27/08/2007 03:01:30 by Jimbo)
Back to Top

X


Xenon A noble gas used in photographic equipment (mainly flashes) used by mine explorers.

Click here to discuss Xenon in the forum (last modified 18/07/2007 11:55:56 by Wormster)
Back to Top

Y


Yankee bonnet. A canvas bonnet with metal lamp-holder used before the introduction of the safety helmet. (Scots.)

Click here to discuss Yankee bonnet. in the forum (last modified 18/07/2007 10:52:11 by Wormster)
Yell To make a loud noise, something that is frowned upon in mine exploration circles, as sudden loud noises underground may cause rockfalls and other disasters.

Click here to discuss Yell in the forum (last modified 26/07/2007 21:14:48 by Wormster)
Back to Top

Z


Zighyr A small stream underground.

Click here to discuss Zighyr in the forum (last modified 21/03/2008 13:36:51 by carnkie)
Zipline Something that is uniquely found on the legendary Croesor to Rhoysdd through trip

Click here to discuss Zipline in the forum (last modified 11/07/2007 18:43:03 by Wormster)
Zone A cross section of the strata, including coalseams, which contains a high proportion of 'gas' or water. A 'zone' containing a large amount of 'firedamp' would be a 'fiery-zone', and if it were heavily inundated with water, it would be a 'water-zone'

Click here to discuss Zone in the forum (last modified 18/07/2007 10:46:11 by Wormster)
Back to Top

Add to Mining Dictionary

You must be logged in to add to the mining dictionary.

Please sign in or register an account.

Add to the Mining Dictionary

Please click here to add to the mining dictionary.
Safety LED Miners Caplamps Moore Books: Specialist Books I.A. Recordings: Mining and Industrial History DVDs Starless River - Caving Store Explore a Disused Welsh Slate Mine
Disclaimer: Mine exploring can be quite dangerous, but then again it can be alright, it all depends on the weather. Please read the proper disclaimer.
© 2005 to 2015 AditNow.co.uk
Top of Page